The turn of the present century has seen the emergence of several possibilities for a meeting of minds, as some generative linguists begin to try to account for cognition‑based structures (e.g., Jackendoff 1983, 2002), for productivity (e.g., Jackendoff 2002), for the dynamic, emergent properties of the speaker’s knowledge of the system (e.g., Culicover and Nowak 2003), and for the variation that undeniably occurs in language (see work on Optimality Theory, e.g., Boersma and Hayes 2001; Lee 2001; Bresnan, Dingare, and Manning 2002). Moreover, some “functional” linguists have sought to formalize their work at least in part (see, e.g., Bybee and Hopper 2001 for frequency studies; Croft 2011 for syntax).